Stem cells are an important part of life formation. We, humans are polymorphic characters with different shapes, sizes but with the similar origin. All of us are made by the amalgamation of two cells called the “ovum” and the “sperm cells”. Therefore, only two cells are responsible for forming a whole organism. This notion has laid a foundation for the awesome era of “Regenerative Medicine”. In this era, by reason of the massive evolutions in the cellular biology, we are on the brink of scouting “Biological solutions to Biological complications”. These stem cells are unspecialized cells with an amazing propensity to self-renew and are proficient of isolating into tissue specific cells of the body. When called for an action by the body at the time of any impairment, these cell undergo division giving rise to one daughter cell and one ancestor cell which is an transitional committed cell type shaped before it wholly separates into specific cell type. Stem cells are categorized by their potential to segregate into other kinds of cells. The cataloging takes account of:
- Totipotent – the ability to segregate into all possible cell varieties. Examples are the zygote formed at egg fertilization and the first few cells that ascend from the division of the zygote.
- Pluripotent – the ability to separate into virtually all cell categories. Examples consist of embryonic stem cells and cells that are derived from the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers that are formed in the beginningphases of embryonic stem cell differentiation.
- Multipotent – the ability to separate into a closely related family of cells. Examplescomprise hematopoietic (adult) stem cells that can become red and white blood cells or platelets.
- Oligopotent – the ability to isolate into a few cells. Examples include (adult) lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.