What Is Diabetes And Can It Be Cured By Stem Cell Therapy?
Virtually 400 million individuals universally are living with diabetes, and that number is anticipated to jump to virtually 600 million by 2035, as per the International Diabetes Federation. For several individuals, diabetes can be controlled with diet, workout and, often, insulin or other medications. However, impediments from diabetes can be serious and consist of kidney failure, nerve impairment, vision loss, heart ailments and a swarm of other health concerns.
What is diabetes?
For a layman, diabetes is an ailment in which the body cannot regulate or appropriately use sugar (named glucose) in the blood. The pancreas plays a vital role in monitoring these levels. Within the pancreas are hundreds of thousands of cell gatherings, identified as the islets of Langerhans, which encompass numerous sorts of hormone-producing cells that normalize blood glucose. Most significantly, these consist of beta cells, which create a hormone identified as insulin that is released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels reach a specific threshold, gesturing other cells in the body to consume sugar, a major energy source for the body’s cells. The human body is continuously harmonizing the quantity of available blood sugar levels that are either too high or too low can be detrimental. In diabetes, blood sugar is raised either because the pancreas does not create ample insulin (type 1 diabetes) or because cells in the body fail to react to the insulin that is released (type 2 diabetes).
- Type 1, formerly identified as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. When the beta cells are absent, there is not adequate insulin for appropriate control of glucose levels. Resultant high sugar levels in the blood can cause mutilation to the kidneys, eyes, nervous system and other organs. Individuals of all body natures can be spotted with type 1 diabetes at any age.
- Type 2 diabetes, formerly identified as adult-onset diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, cells in the body become resilient to insulin. They don’t react well to the insulin released by beta cells. The beta cells create more insulin to gesture the other cells, but ultimately are not able to recompense. As with type 1, high blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes can cause grave impairment to the body. The occurrence of type 2 diabetes surges in individuals over 45 but type 2 is gradually identified in younger folks. Hereditary background, obesity and lack of workout are common risk elements that incline to type 2 diabetes.
How stem cells are used for diabetes?
Stem cells are being used for ongoing study to help us reconnoiter the elaborate ways in which our bodies process sugar and answer some vital queries about the root reasons of diabetes like:
- In type 1 diabetes, why does the immune system start to bout beta cells and not other cells in the pancreas or in other organs or tissues?
- In type 2 diabetes, what triggers the resistance to insulin?
Lately, there has been phenomenal progress in producing beta cells from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.
What is the potential for stem cells to treat diabetes?
Wondering that can diabetes be cured by stem cell therapy? Developing and analyzing a truly effective stem-cell based treatment for diabetes will take years. The two key challenges are finding a satisfactory source of insulin-producing cells and guarding these cells from attack by the immune system. There has been striking progress in resolving the beta cell supply problem in that it is now possible to create insulin-producing cells from human MSCs and iPS cells. Investigators are eyeing at ways to reinstate the number of functional beta cells in patients with diabetes, chasing both the replacement of lost beta cells and the safety of beta cells from further impairment. Numerous diverse methodologies are being used for this. Key to these methodologies is getting beta cells into a place in the body where they can work and guarding them from what was harming them in the first place. This embraces transplantation into portions of the body where the replacement cells are less likely to be attacked by the immune system or settlement of the cells into protective capsules. Such capsules are permeable and would permit trivial molecules such as glucose and insulin to move across while guarding the beta cells from the cells of the immune system. For type 1 diabetes, there are numerous experimental approaches being taken to limit the immune system’s attack on the beta cells. Maximum of these are still being explored in the lab. There are some clinical trials ongoing to test whether blood stem cells or mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow may change or retune the immune system so that it no longer attacks the beta cells.